Carbon - Diamond - C
Diamond is probably known by most people as a transparent precious gemstone, which is the hardest material available. Most Diamond used industrially is synthetic, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is transparent to ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. Other properties include a low thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of friction, and an extremely high Young's (tensile) modulus. It also has a high electrical resistivity, and has a high upper continuous use temperature. Applications include use as detectors and windows in high temperature processes, as heat sinks in microelectrical applications, and as wear-resistant coatings. Diamond is chemically inert and, therefore, can be used in adverse conditions.